One of the aims of this site is to direct users to writing on Cultural Memory in general that offers a theoretical framework adequate to support their developing research. The field of reading in Cultural Memory is of course immense. This working bibliography was composed of core texts from the Institute’s former MA in Cultural Memory General Reading List, plus contributions from academics consulted during the development of the website. If you are aware of texts that provide an excellent framework for the study of Cultural Memory but are missing from this list, please email


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Andrieu, Claire, Sara Gensburger, Jacques Semelin [eds.]: Resisting Genocide. The Multiple Forms of Rescue (Columbia University Press, 2011)

Antze, Paul and Michael Lambek [eds.]: Tense Past: Cultural Essays in Trauma and Memory (London: Routledge, 1996)

Bal, Mieke, Jonathan Crewe and Leo Spitzer [eds.]: Acts of Memory: Cultural Recall in the Present (Hanover, NH & London: University Press of New England, 1999)

Bennett, Tony: The Birth of the Museum: History, Theory, Politics (London: Routledge, 1995)

Bevernage, Berber: History, Memory and State-sponsored Violence. Time and Justice (Routledge, 2011)

Boswell, David and Jessica Evans [eds.]: Representing the Nation: A Reader, Histories, Heritage and Museums(London: Routledge, 1999)

Bond, Lucy and Jessica Rapson [eds]: The Transcultural Turn: Interrogating Memory Between and Beyond Borders (Berlin: De Gruyter, 2014)

Brodzki, Bella: Can these Bones Live? Translation, Survival and Cultural Memory (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2007)

Candau, J.: Anthropologie de la mémoire (Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1996)

Caruth, Cathy [ed.], Trauma: Explorations in Memory (Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 1995)

Certeau, Michel de: The Practice of Everyday Life [Translated by Steven F. Rendall] (Berkeley CA: University of California Press, 2002)

Cohen-Pfister, Laurel and Dagmar Wienroeder-Skinner [eds.]: Victims and Perpetrators 1933-1945. (Re)Presenting the Past in Post-Unificaton Culture (Berlin/New York: De Gruyter, 2006)

Connerton, Paul:  How Societies Remember (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989)

—:  How Modernity Forgets (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009) 

Crownshaw, Rick, Jane Kilby and Anthony Rowland [eds.]: The Future of Memory (Oxford: Berghahn, 2010)

Crownshaw, Richard: The Afterlife of Holocaust Memory in Contemporary Literature and Culture (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan Memory Studies, 2010)

Crinson, M. [ed.]: Urban Memory: History and Oblivion in the Modern City (London: Routledge, 2004)

De Cesari, Chiara and Ann Rigney [eds.]: Transnational Memory: Circulation, Articulation, Scales (Berlin: De Gruyter, 2014)

D'Haen Theo and Patricia Krüs [eds.: The Proceedings of the XVth Conference of the International Comparative Literature Association, 'Literature as Cultural Memory'  [10 vols.] (Amsterdam and Atlanta: Rodopi, 2000).

1. Nation Building
2. The Colonizer and the Colonized
3. The Conscience of Humankind: Literature and Traumatic Experiences
4. Gendered Memories
5. Genres as Repositories of Cultural memory
6. Methods for the Study of Cultural Memory
7. Reconstructing Cultural Memory: Translation, Scripts, Literacy
8. Intercultural Studies
9. Travel Writing and Cultural Memory
10. Images of Westerners in Chinese and Japanese Literature

Eaglestone, Robert and Anthony Rowland [eds.]: Critical Survey on Holocaust Poetry [Special Edition] (2009)

Erikson, Kai T.: A New Species of Trouble: Explorations in Disaster, Trauma, and Community (New York : Norton, 1994)

Erll, Astrid:  Memory in Culture (London: Palgrave, 2011).

Erll, Astrid, Ansgar NuenningSara B. Young [eds]: Cultural Memory Studies: An International and Interdisciplinary Handbook (Berlin/New York: De Gruyter, c2008)

Forty, Adrian and Susanne Kühler [eds.]:  The Art of Forgetting (Oxford: Berg, 1999)

Freud, Sigmund: Mourning and Melancholia [Freud Library vol. 11: On Metapsychology] (London: Penguin, 1984)

Gildea, Robert: The Past in French History (New Haven/London: Yale University Press, 1994)

Graham, Brian, Peter Howard [eds.] The Ashgate Research Companion to Heritage and Identity (Aldershot: Ashgate, c2008)

Greenberg, Reesa, Bruce W. Ferguson and Sandy Nairne [eds.]: Thinking about Exhibitions (London: Routledge, 1996)

Halbwachs, Maurice: The Collective Memory (New York: Harper and Row, 1980) [French original La Mémoire collective(Paris, 1950)]

Hall, Martin, Noeleen Murray and Nick Shepherd [eds.]: Desire Lines: Space, Memory and Identity in the Post-Apartheid City (London: Routledge, 2007)

Hallam, Elizabeth and Jenny Hockey [eds.]: Death, Memory and Material Culture (Oxford: Berg, 2001)

Hirsch, Marianne: Family Frames: Photography, Narrative and Postmemory (Cambridge, MA/London: Harvard University Press, 1997)

Hirsch, Marianne: The Generation of Postmemory: Writing and Visual Culture After the Holocaust (New York: Columbia UP, 2012)

Hodgkin, Katherine and Susannah Radstone [eds.]: Contested Pasts: The Politics of Memory (London: Routledge, 2003)

Homans, Peter [ed.]: Symbolic Loss: The Ambiguity of Mourning and Memory at Century’s End(Charlottesville/London: University Press of Virginia, 2000)

Huyssen, Andreas: Twilight Memories: Marking Time in a Culture of Amnesia (London: Routledge, 1995)

Irwin-Zarecka, Iwona: Frames of Remembrance: Social and Cultural Dynamics of Collective Memory (New Brunswick/London: Transaction, 1993)

Kilby, Jane: Violence and the Cultural Politics of Trauma (Edinburgh: University of Edinburgh Press, 2007)

Kuhn, Annette: An Everyday Magic: Cinema and Cultural Memory (London/New York: IB Tauris, 2002)

Kwint, Marius, Christopher Breward and Jeremy Aynsley [eds.]: Material Memories: Design and Evocation (Oxford: Berg, 1999)

Labanyi, Jo: ‘Historias de víctimas: La memoria histórica y el testimonio en la España contemporánea’ in Prácticas de poder y estrategias de resistencia en la España democrática, dossier in Iberoamericana 6 ed. by Óscar Cornago (2006), 87-98

—:  ‘Memory and Modernity in Democratic Spain: The Difficulty of Coming to Terms with the Spanish Civil War’ (Poetics Today, 28.1, 2007), 990-116

—: ‘Teaching history through memory work: issues of memorialization in representations of the Spanish civil war’ in Teaching the Spanish Civil War ed. by Noël Valis (New York: Modern Language Association, 2007), 436-47

 —: ‘Cinema and the Mediation of Everyday Life in 1940s and 1950s Spain’ in Alternative Voices in European Cinema ed. by Margaret Topping and Guyda Armstrong [monographic issue of New Readings 8 (2007)]

 —: ‘O cine como memoria / A memoria do cine’ in Plan Rosebud: Sopbre imaxes, lugares e políticas de memoria ed. by María Ruido (Santiago de Compostela: Xunta de Galicia/Centro Galego de Arte Contemporánea, 2008), 177-90 (published trilingually in Galician-Spanish-English)

—: ‘The languages of silence: historical memory, generational transmission, and witnessing in contemporary Spain’ in The Witness and the Text ed. by Debra Kelly and Gill Rye  [monographic issue of Journal of Romance Studies 9.3 (2009)]

—: ‘Testimonies of repression: methodological and political issues’ in Unearthing Franco’s Legacy: Mass Graves and the Recuperation of Historical Memory in Spain ed. by Carlos Jerez-Ferrán and Samuel Amago (South Bend: Notre Dame University Press, 2009)

Levinson, Sanford: Written in Stone: Public Monuments in Changing Societies (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1998)

Levy, Daniel and Natan Sznaider: Holocaust and Memory in a Global Age (Temple University Press, 2006)

—: Human Righhts and Memory (Urban: Penn State University, 2010)

Markowitsch, Hans J. & Harald Welzer: The Development of Autobiographical Memory (London: Psychology Press, 2009)

Marcus, Laura [ed.]:  Sigmund Freud’s ‘The Interpretation of Dreams’ (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1999)

Martin, Luther H., Huck Gutman and Patricia H. Hutton [eds.]: Technologies of the Self: A Seminar with Michel Foucault (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1988)

Matsuda, Matthew K.: The Memory of the Modern (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996)

Mills, Amy: Streets of Memory: Landscape, Tolerance, and National Identity in Istanbul (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2010)

Nora, Pierre: Realms of Memory (New York: Columbia University Press, 1996-8) [French original Les Lieux de mémoire(Paris: Gallimard, 1984)]

Noiriel, Gérard: 'Immigration: amnesia and memory' (French Historical Studies 19(2) (1995)) 367-80

Norkunas, M.: Monuments and Memory, Monuments and Memory: History and Representation in Lowell, Massachusetts (Washington, DC: Smithsonian, 2002)

Novick, Peter: The Holocaust and Collective Memory (London: Bloomsbury, 2001)

Otele, Olivette: African European: An Untold History (London: Hurst, 2020)

Perks, Robert and A. Thomson [eds.]:The Oral History Reader (London: Routledge, 1997)

The Personal Narratives Group [eds.]: Interpreting Women's Lives: Feminist Theory and Personal Narratives(Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1989)

Pollock, Griselda and Max Silverman [eds.]: Concentrationary Cinema: Aesthetics as Political Resistance in Alain Resnaiss Night and Fog (Oxford: Berghahn, 2011)

— [eds]: Concentrationary Memories: Totalitarian Terror and Cultural Resistance (London: I.B. Tauris, 2014)

— [eds]: Concentrationary Imaginaries: Tracing Totaitarian Violence in Popular Culture (London: I.B. Tauris, 2015)

— [eds]: Concentrationary Art: Jean Cayrol, the Lazarean and the Everyday in Post-war European Film, Literature and Music (Oxford: Berghahn, 2019)

Radstone, Susannah [ed.]: Memory and Methodology (Oxford: Berg, 2000)

Rosenstone, Robert A.: 'History in Images/History in Words: Reflections on the Possibility of Really Putting History onto Film' (American Historical Review 93(5) (1988), 1173-1185). 

Rorato, Laura and Anna Saunders: The Essence and the Margin: National Identities and Collective Memories in Contemporary European Culture (Amsterdam/New York: Rodopi, 2009)

Rothberg, Michael: Multidirectional Memory: Remembering the Holocaust in the Age of Decolonization (Redwood, CA: Stanford University Press, 2009)

—: The Implicated Subject: Beyond Victims and Perpetrators (Redwood, CA: Stanford University Press, 2019).

Rowland, Antony: Holocaust Poetry: Awkward Poetics in the Work of Sylvia Plath, Geoffrey Hill, Tony Harrison and Ted Hughes (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2005)

Samuel, Raphael: Theatres of Memory (London: Verso, 1994)

Sanyal, Debarati: Memory and Complicity: Migrations of Holocaust Remembrance (New York: Fordham University Press, 2012)

Silverman, Max: Palimpsestic Memory: The Holocaust and Colonialism in French and Francophone Fiction and Film (Oxford: Berghahn: 2013)

Spišiaková, Eva, Charles Forsdick and James Mark [eds.]: ‘The Global Crisis in Memory: Populism, Decolonisation and How We Remember in the Twenty-First Century [Special issue of Modern Languages Open 1 (2020) available online at

Steedman, Carolyn: Landscape for a Good Woman (London: Viking, 1986)

Sturken, Marita: The Vietnam War, the AIDS Epidemic and the Politics of Remembering (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1997)

Taylor, Diane: The Archive and the Repertoire: Performing Cultural Memory in the Americas (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2003)

Terdiman, Richard: Present Past: Modernity and the Memory Crisis (Ithaca/London: Cornell University Press, 1993)

Thomson, Alistair: 'Moving Stories: Oral History and Migration Studies' (Oral History 27 [1-2 Spring 1999], 25-37)

Tilley, Christopher: A Phenomenology of Landscape: Places, Paths and Monuments (Oxford: Berg, 1994) [See also other texts in this series 'Exploring Anthropology']

Trouillot, Michel-Rolph: Silencing the Past: Power and the Production of History (Boston, MA: Beacon Press, 1995)

Young, James E.: The Texture of Memory: Holocaust Memorials and Meaning (London: Yale University Press, 1993)

Wahnich, Sophie, Barbara Lášticová and Andrej Findor [eds.]: Politics of Collective Memory: Cultural Patterns of Commemorative Practices in Post-war Europe. (Berlin: Lit/London: Global, 2008)

Wilson, Colette: Paris and the Commune 1871-1878: The Politics of Forgetting (Manchester/New York: Manchester University Press, 2007)


British Library

Besides its huge collection of print materials the British Library also holds an extensive archive of oral history. You can access the sound archive online, download and listen to recordings and add notes and tags.

Library of Congress

The Library of Congress has a section on American Memory which describes and gives access to a wealth of artefacts, including those relating to immigrant communities. Emerging American recognition of conjoined histories has led to the setting-up of some projects with Spanish and Portuguese links, such as the Parallel Histories Project, which links the Library of Congress to Biblioteca Nacional de España. The libraries’ shared digital projects tend to favour patrimonic versions of history and memory, but collections such as The Spanish-American War in Motion Pictures begin to offer access to cultural memory as rendered in more popular media.

Eleanor Roosevelt Papers Project

The Eleanor Roosevelt Papers is a project dedicated to bringing Eleanor Roosevelt's writings (and radio and television appearances) on democracy and human rights before an audience as diverse as the ones she addressed.

Wiener Library 

The Wiener Library is one of the world's leading and most extensive archives on the Holocaust and Nazi era. Formed in 1933, the Library's unique collection of over one million items includes published and unpublished works, press cuttings, photographs and eyewitness testimony. Mission statement: to serve scholars, professional researchers, the media and the public as a library of record. To engage people of all ages and backgrounds in understanding the Holocaust and its historical context through an active educational programme. To be a living memorial to the evils of the past by ensuring that our wealth of materials is put at the service of the future. The Library provides a resource to oppose antisemitism and other forms of prejudice and intolerance. The Library's reputation rests on its independence and the scholarly objectivity of its activities and publications.

Senate House Library

Senate House Library at the University of London specialises in European Art and Cultural Memory, with particularly rich collections on cultural memory and exile, as well as archives held as part of the ILCS’s Research Centre for German & Austrian Exile Studies.


Bearing Witness. Between History and Memory

Three times a year the Fondation Auschwitz/Mémoire d'Auschwitz publishes its journal (which has existed for 25 years), to publicize the most recent multi-discipliary research on the Nazi camps and the genocide of the Jews and Gypsies.

History & Memory

History & Memory aims to explore not only official representations of the past in public monuments and commemorations but also the role of oral history and personal narratives, the influence of the new media in shaping historical consciousness, and the renewed relevance of history writing for emerging nations and social conflicts.

Journal of Literature and Trauma Studies

The Journal of Literature and Trauma Studies is a bi-annual international peer-reviewed online journal dedicated to the study of the relationship between literature and trauma.

Memory Studies

Memory Studies is an international peer reviewed journal which examines the social, cultural, cognitive, political and technological shifts affecting how, what and why individuals, groups and societies remember, and forget. The journal responds to and seeks to shape public and academic discourses on the nature, manipulation, and contestation of memory in the contemporary era.